DNA strand is made from alternating phospate and sugar residues. Thesre two strands run in opposite directions to each other and therfore antiparallel Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases. The sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose which is apentose sugar searches of DNA into the related nuclear acid RNA in aproesss sugsrs are joinrd to phospate groups that from phosphodiester bonds btwn the third and4th carbon atoms adjacent sugar rings.

DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides. The DNA is chain is 20-26 angstroms wide. DNA polymers can be very large moleculars containing millions of nucleotides chemically with backbones made of sugars and phospates groups joined by ester bonds these onformation is using the genetic code. Phospate groups are joined by ester bonds. In living organisms,

DNA does not usually exist as a single molecule but it exists as a pair of molecules that are held tightly together. These two long strands and entwine like vines, in the shape a double helix. which holds chain together and a base which interacts with the other DNA strand in the helix. A base linked to a sugar is nucleiotide. If muultiple nucleiotide are linked to together, as in DNA this polymer is known as a polynucleiotide.


Genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. While some diseases such as cancer. Cancer are due to genetic abnormalities acquired in a few cells during life. The term "genetic disease" most commonly refers to diseases present in all cells of the body and present since conception. Some genetic disorders are caused by chromosomal abnormalities due to errors in meiosis, the process which produces reproductive cells such as sperm and eggs. Examples include Down syndrome, Turner Syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome. Other genetic changes may occur during the production of germ cells by the parent. One example is the triplet expansion repeat mutations which can cause fragile X syndrome or Huntington's disease. Defective genes may also be inherited intact from the parents. In this case, the genetic disorder is known as a hereditary disease. This can often happen unexpectedly when two healthy carriers of a defective recessive gene reproduce, but can also happen when the defective gene is dominant.

About 4,000 genetic disorders are known with more being discovered. Most disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common genetic disorders around 5% of the population of the United States carry at least one copy of the defective gene. Some types of recessive gene disorder confer an advantage in the heterozygous state in certain environments.Genetic diseases are typically diagnosed and treated by geneticists. Genetic counselors assist the physicians and directly counsel patients. The study of genetic diseases is a scientific discipline whose theoretical underpinning is based on population genetics.


Monoclonal antibodies are monospecific antibodies that are the same because they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cells.

Given almost any substance. It is possible to create monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to that substance; they can then serve to detect or purify that substance. This has become an important tool in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine. When used as medications, the non-proprietary drug name ends in -mab.

Phylogetics DNA

Every living cells contains DNA, RNA and protiens. closely related organisms generally have degree of agreement in the molecular structure of these substances,Heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotiens are spliceosomal macromolecular assemblages and thus actively participate in pre-mRNA metabloism.

conserved sequnces. such as mitochondrial DNA are expected to accumalate mutations over time and assuming a constant rate of mutation provide molecular interaction features.

Molecular characterization of human hnRNP A3 showed that while the recombinant hnRNP A3 with its 296 amino acids migrates as excpted as 32 kDA protien on SDS-PAGE analysis, it is recoginzed by the patient's sera as a 50 kda highly related ye unknownv crossreactive protien.

The sequence comparision. however may be insufficient for deduction of its functional role patients diagnozed with the suspected disease. therefore we followed the suggestion of ponting CS and Russel RRSurprisingly, neither the 50 kda nor the 32kda protien was dected in the suspected disease.


Recombinant DNA is a form of artificial DNA that is engineered through the combination of insertion of one or more DNA strands. Therefor combining DNA sequences that would not normally occur together. In terms of genetic modification, recombinant DNA is produced through the addition of relevant DNA into an existing organismal genome, such as the plasmid of bacteria, to code for or alter different traits for a specific purpose, such as immunity. It differs from genetic recombination, in that it does not occur through processes within the cell or ribosome, but is exclusively engineered.The Recombinant DNA technique was engineered by Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer in 1973. They published their findings in a 1974 paper entitled "Construction of Biologically Functional Bacterial Plasmids in vitro". Which described a technique to isolate and amplify genes or DNA segments and insert them into another cell with precision, creating a transgenic bacterium.